Many human neuroblastoma tumors and cells in culture contain amplified N-myc DNA and this is associated with tumor stage. We have analyzed pairs of neuroblastoma cell cultures derived from two patients at the time of diagnosis and after tumor progression following the initiation of therapy. Cell cultures derived after progression have increased expression of N-myc RNA. In one pair this increase is associated with increased N-myc DNA amplification; in the other, amplification decreases and activation of N-myc is most likely the result of a regulatory change. Analysis of the pattern of DNA amplification in these cell cultures demonstrates additional changes that might be associated with tumor progression.