The LNCaP cell line was established from a metastatic lesion of human prostatic adenocarcinoma. The LNCaP cells grow readily in vitro (up to 8 × 105 cells/sq cm; doubling time, 60 hr), form clones in semisolid media, are highly resistant to human fibroblast interferon, and show an aneuploid (modal number, 76 to 91) human male karyotype with several marker chromosomes. The malignant properties of LNCaP cells are maintained. Athymic nude mice develop tumors at the injection site (volume-doubling time, 86 hr). Functional differentiation is preserved; both cultures and tumor produce acid phosphatase. High-affinity specific androgen receptors are present in the cytosol and nuclear fractions of cells in culture and in tumors. Estrogen receptors are demonstrable in the cytosol. The model is hormonally responsive. In vitro, 5α-dihydrotestosterone modulates cell growth and stimulates acid phosphatase production. In vivo, the frequency of tumor development and the mean time of tumor appearance are significantly different for either sex. Male mice develop tumors earlier and at a greater frequency than do females. Hormonal manipulations show that, regardless of sex, the frequency of tumor development correlates with serum androgen levels. The rate of the tumor growth, however, is independent of the gender or hormonal status of the host.
This work was supported by USPHS Grant CA 27472 through the National Prostatic Cancer Project.