A monoclonal antibody specific for a common acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) antigen has been generated and characterized. This antibody (J-5) is reactive with leukemic cells from most patients with non-T-cell ALL and some patients with chronic myelocytic leukemia in blast crisis. J-5 antibody is not reactive with leukemic cells from patients with either T-cell ALL, chronic lymphocytic leukemia, acute myeloblastic leukemia, or stable-phase chronic myelocytic leukemia. In addition to diagnostic applications, anti-common ALL antigen monoclonal antibody has been used to study the effect of specific serotherapy in the treatment of ALL. In the first patient with ALL treated with J-5 antibody, a 90% reduction in circulating lymphoblasts occurred within 1 hr of starting antibody infusion. Despite continued serotherapy, however, lymphoblasts persisted in peripheral blood and bone marrow. Analysis of cell surface markers during serotherapy suggested that resistance to antibody-mediated lysis in vivo may have been due to antigenic modulation of leukemic cells in response to J-5 monoclonal antibody.
Presented at the Conference on Cell Markers in Acute Leukemia, March 4 and 5, 1980, Bethesda, Md. This work was supported in part by NIH Grants CA 06516, CA 25369, AI 12069, and CA 19589.