The effects of ovariectomy or adrenalectomy on the production of steroid sex hormones, as indicated by the cytologic changes in the vaginal mucosa, were determined in a series of 29 virgin DBA × CE and reciprocal hybrid mice before and after the appearance of the uterine lesions which develop spontaneously in these animals at 6–8 months of age. Ovariectomy was followed by regression of the vaginal mucosa to the castrate type in nine of eleven animals, whereas after adrenalectomy there was evidence of hormonal activity in all eighteen animals examined. The results were the same both before and after the onset of pathologic changes in the uteri. These findings indicate that the ovaries are the immediate source of the steroid hormone imbalance responsible for the development of the uterine lesions.

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This work has been aided by grants to the Roscoe B. Jackson Memorial Laboratory from the Commonwealth Fund, the Anna Fuller Fund, the Jane Coffin Childs Memorial Fund for Medical Research, and from the National Cancer Institute of the National Institutes of Health, Public Health Service.

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