Peritoneal carcinomatosis is a common form of metastasis occurring in approximately 10% of gastrointestinal and pancreatic cancers with life expectancy often less than 6-12 months. Due to the limited options for treatment of peritoneal carcinomatosis, there is a significant need for novel therapeutic strategies. We explored the therapeutic potential of CMP-001, a novel virus-like particle composed of the Qβ bacteriophage capsid protein encapsulating an immunostimulatory CpG-A oligodeoxynucleotide (CpG-A ODN) in this cancer. CpG-A ODN is a known activator of toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9), which is expressed by human and murine plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs). Initial studies evaluated the effect of CMP-001 in vitro on cells obtained from the ascitic fluid of patients with peritoneal carcinomatosis. These studies demonstrated that pDCs are present in the ascitic fluid and produce IFN-α in response to CMP-001 stimulation. A mouse model of peritoneal carcinomatosis was used to further explore the therapeutic potential of CMP-001. C57BL/6 mice were challenged intraperitoneally (i.p.) with Panc02 mouse pancreatic cancer cells. On days 5, 9, and 13 post-tumor challenge mice were treated i.p. with either saline or 100 μg CMP-001. Mice treated with CMP-001 had a median survival of 35 days compared to mice treated with saline alone with a median survival of 28 days (n = 10 per group, p = 0.028). Examination of the immune response demonstrated CMP-001 induced an influx of dendritic cells (CMP- 001 8.99% ± 0.95 vs saline 4.57% ± 0.7, p = 0.0015), NK cells (CMP-001 0.26% ± 0.052 vs saline 0.087% ± 0.0085, p = 0.006), and CD4+ T cells (CMP-001 3.29% ± 0.85 vs saline 0.95% ± 0.097, p = 0.0168) into the ascitic fluid. In addition, CMP-001 induced a significant increase in antigen-experienced, effector and memory, CD11ahiCD44hi CD4+ T cells (CMP-001 54.55% ± 6.52 vs saline 28.12% ± 3.68, p = 0.0028) and CD11ahiCD8αlo CD8+ T cells (CMP-001 58.49% ± 4.47 vs saline 23.04% ± 2.86, p < 0.0001) in the ascites. These data demonstrate that CMP-001 treatment activates pDCs in the peritoneal fluid of patients with carcinomatosis. In addition, CMP-001 stimulates a robust immune response in the peritoneal cavity of mice with peritoneal carcinomatosis. This robust immune response likely contributes to the enhanced survival and decreased disease progression in these mice. Collectively, these promising preclinical results suggest that CMP-001 may have potential as an immunotherapy for the treatment of patients with peritoneal carcinomatosis and is worthy of further evaluation.
Citation Format: Ann M. Miller, Caitlin Lemke-Miltner, Sue Blackwell, Ann Tomanek-Chalkley, Kristen Coleman, George Weiner, Carlos Chan. CMP-001, a virus-like particle containing immunostimulatory CpG-A, for treatment of peritoneal carcinomatosis of gastrointestinal and pancreatic cancers [abstract]. In: Proceedings of the American Association for Cancer Research Annual Meeting 2019; 2019 Mar 29-Apr 3; Atlanta, GA. Philadelphia (PA): AACR; Cancer Res 2019;79(13 Suppl):Abstract nr 3273.