Background: Adipocytes protect acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) cells from several chemotherapeutic drugs. This protection is associated with an oxidative stress response in adipocytes. Since adipocytes are known to release reactive oxygen species, and anthracyclines are sensitive to inactivation mediated by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), we investigated whether adipocyte release of H2O2 into the micro-environment might contribute to drug resistance of ALL cells.
Methods: Pre-B lymphoblast/myeloblast BV173 cells in complete media (CM) were co-cultured for 3 days in transwells over 3T3-L1 fibroblasts or adipocytes. Viable cells were determined by Trypan blue exclusion for BV173 cells. Leukemia Conditioned Media (LCM) was prepared from BV173 cultured for 48 hrs. Total antioxidant capacity was measured by ABTS-based assay. H2O2 released in the extracellular compartment of adipocytes was monitored with Amplex Red and ROS-Glo.
Results: BV173 cells were protected from DNR in presence of 1 mM H2O2 (9.34±2.15x104 vs. 3.33±1.01x104 viable cells with and without H2O2, p=0.03). Interestingly, this protection was only observed when pyruvate was present in the culture media at equimolar concentrations with H2O2 (DNR: 4.14±2.14x104; DNR+pyruvate: 4.17±1.53x104; DNR+H2O2: 3.77±2.74x103; DNR+pyruvate+H2O2: 3.21±0.59x105, p=0.02). Adipocytes released H2O2 into the media measured with Amplex Red fluorescence in a time-dependent manner significantly more than fibroblasts (1.96-fold, p=0.001). LCM potentiated adipocyte H2O2 released (1.5-fold over CM, p=0.05). Human adipose tissue biopsies from breast cancer survivors also released H2O2 (4.37x103 RFU for biopsies vs. 0.65x103 RFU for HBSS, 90 min, n=5). Co-culture of adipocytes and BV173 cells increases the survival of BV173 to DNR treatment (1.55±0.34x105 vs. 6.88±2.91x103 viable cells with and without adipocytes, p=0.006). Adipocyte-mediated protection of BV173 cells was reversed in a dose-dependent manner by adding the H2O2-inactivating enzyme catalase to the extracellular media (7.28±1.44x104 vs. 15.58±3.48x104 viable cells with and without 500 U/ml catalase, p=0.01).
Conclusion: These data show that adipocytes release H2O2, which in the presence of pyruvate, protects ALL cells from DNR. Further work is needed to determine whether adipocytes secrete significant amounts of H2O2 in the bone marrow micro-environment to contribute to anthracycline resistance.
Citation Format: Jean-Hugues Parmentier, Christina M. Dieli-Conwright, Steven D. Mittelman. Adipocyte-derived hydrogen peroxide promotes chemoresistance to daunorubicin in leukemia cells [abstract]. In: Proceedings of the American Association for Cancer Research Annual Meeting 2017; 2017 Apr 1-5; Washington, DC. Philadelphia (PA): AACR; Cancer Res 2017;77(13 Suppl):Abstract nr 3185. doi:10.1158/1538-7445.AM2017-3185