Activating mutations of PIK3CA, the gene encoding the p110α subunit of PI3K, are frequent in breast cancer and selective inhibitors of this enzyme have shown promising clinical activity in breast tumors harboring these mutations. We studied the case of a patient with metastatic breast cancer harboring a PIK3CA mutation that was treated in a clinical trial with BYL719, a highly selective PI3Kα inhibitor. The treatment resulted in a robust partial response that lasted 7 months followed by rapid progression and death. A rapid autopsy was performed with collection of tissue samples from 16 different metastatic sites. We compared by whole genome and exome sequencing the original primary tumor, a rapidly progressing lung metastasis and a periaortic lesion that was still responding to BYL719 at time of death. Besides several common alterations, PTEN loss and a missense mutation were detected only in the lung metastasis. Using targeted exome sequencing we analyzed all the other available samples. Strikingly, we observed a consistent loss in PTEN (via different mechanisms such as deletion, splice site mutation and frameshift mutations) in all the lesions refractory to BYL719 but not in the responding ones. In every case, the loss of PTEN was also documented by lack of protein expression by immunohistochemistry (IHC). Finally, we were able to build a dendrogram showing the phylogenetic evolution of the lesions and the evolutionary convergence of the PTEN alterations.
To validate PTEN loss as a possible mechanism of acquired resistance to selective PI3Kα inhibition, we generated doxycycline-inducible PTEN shRNA stable clones starting from three different BYL719-sensitive cell lines. In all the studied models, induction of PTEN shRNA resulted in resistance to BYL719.
Since PTEN deficient genetic models have been shown to rely on the β subunit of the PI3K holoenzyme, we tested whether the concomitant inhibition of both p110α and p110β was sufficient to revert the resistant phenotype. BKM120 (a pan-PI3K inhibitor) or the addition of AZD6482 (p110β inhibitor) to BYL719 re-sensitized the cells to BYL719.
To expand our findings in vivo, we generated a patient-derived xenograft (PDX) model from a PTEN-null non-responding lesion (lung). Consistently, this PDX model was refractory to the antitumor activity of BYL719 but conserved sensitivity to BKM120 or the combination of AZD6482 and BYL719. In both cases, IHC analysis revealed a decrease in PI3K/AKT downstream effectors pPRAS40 (246) and pS6 (240/4) staining with BKM120 or AZD6482+BYL719, but not with BYL719 alone.
Preliminary analyses of other samples collected from patients treated with BYL719 suggest that PTEN loss is a relatively frequent event upon therapy progression.
Taken together, the different mechanisms that inactivate PTEN in the tumor treated with BYL719 can be explained by convergent phenotypic evolution in a heterogeneous tumor and highlight the importance of PTEN and PI3Kβ in acquired resistance to PI3Kα inhibitors.
Citation Format: Pau Castel, Dejan Juric, Helen Won, Benjamin Ainscough, Haley Ellis, Saya Ebbesen, Malachi Griffith, Obi Griffith, Iyer Gopakumar, Dennis Sgroi, Steven Isakoff, Elaine Mardis, David Solit, Scott Lowe, Cornelia Quadt, Malte Peters, Michael Berger, Maurizio Scaltriti, José Baselga. Loss of PTEN leads to clinical resistance to the PI3Kα inhibitor BYL719 and provides evidence of convergent evolution under selective therapeutic pressure. [abstract]. In: Proceedings of the 105th Annual Meeting of the American Association for Cancer Research; 2014 Apr 5-9; San Diego, CA. Philadelphia (PA): AACR; Cancer Res 2014;74(19 Suppl):Abstract nr LB-327. doi:10.1158/1538-7445.AM2014-LB-327