In this report, we studied the effect of phosmidosine, a proline-containing nucleotide on the serum-induced cell cycle progression in human lung fibroblast WI-38 cells. Phosmidosine suppressed S-phase entry and arrested cell cycle progression at the G1 phase. In serum-stimulated cells, phosmidosine did not affect the activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase cascade. However, phosmidosine inhibited hyperphosphorylation of retinoblastoma (RB) protein by RB-kinases such as cyclin-dependent kinase 4 and cyclin-dependent kinase 2, probably as a result of the inhibition of cyclin D1 expression. Furthermore, in tsFT210 cells, a temperature-sensitive cdc2 mutant isolated from the mouse mammary carcinoma cell line FM3A, phosmidosine, irreversibly inhibited the cell cycle progression at G1 without affecting the G2 to M transition. Phosmidosine acts at an earlier point in G1 compared with mimosine or aphidicolin, well-known cell cycle blockers at the G1-S boundary. Taken together, phosmidosine arrested cells at a specific point between the start point and restriction point in G1 and is a useful drug that may contribute to the understanding of the regulatory mechanisms of G1 progression.
This work was supported in part by a Special Grant for Promotion of Research (RIKEN), a Grant for Multibioprobes (RIKEN), and a Grant from the Ministry of Education, Science, Sports and Culture, Japan.