The relation between use of hair dyes and risk of bladder cancer was assessed using data from a case-control study of bladder cancer. Incident cases (2982) and general population controls (5782) were interviewed. The overall estimate of relative risk of bladder cancer for users of hair dyes was 1.0 (95% confidence interval, 0.9 to 1.2) compared to nonusers. No consistent pattern of association was detected between bladder cancer risk and various indices of timing or intensity of exposure to hair dyes. Various explanations of the lack of association are discussed.


This study was sponsored by the United States Food and Drug Administration, the National Cancer Institute, and the Environmental Protection Agency.

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