Peripheral T cell lymphoma (PTCL) is a heterogeneous and aggressive disease with a poor prognosis. Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors have shown inhibitory effects on PTCL. A better understanding of the therapeutic mechanism underlying the effects of HDAC inhibitors could help improve treatment strategies. Here, we found that high expression of HDAC3 is associated with poor prognosis in PTCL. HDAC3 inhibition suppressed lymphoma growth in immunocompetent mice but not in immunodeficient mice. HDAC3 deletion delayed the progression of lymphoma, reduced the lymphoma burden in the thymus, spleen, and lymph nodes, and prolonged the survival of mice bearing MNU-induced lymphoma. Furthermore, inhibiting HDAC3 promoted the infiltration and enhanced the function of natural killer (NK) cells. Mechanistically, HDAC3 mediated ATF3 deacetylation, enhancing its transcriptional inhibitory activity. Targeting HDAC3 enhanced CXCL12 secretion through an ATF3-dependent pathway to stimulate NK cell recruitment and activation. Finally, HDAC3 suppression improved the response of PTCL to conventional chemotherapy. Collectively, this study provides insights into the mechanism by which HDAC3 regulates ATF3 activity and CXCL12 secretion, leading to immune infiltration and lymphoma suppression. Combining HDAC3 inhibitors with chemotherapy may be a promising strategy for treating PTCL. Key words: Histone deacetylases (HDACs), Natural killer (NK) cells, Peripheral T cell lymphoma (PTCL)

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