Chemotherapy can impede cancer progression and is a well-demonstrated component of curative care for some patients with nonmetastatic cancer. However, cancer often relapses in high-risk patients due to acquired chemoresistance and progression to an incurable metastatic stage. There is building evidence from mouse models suggesting a possible stimulatory effect of chemotherapy on metastasis. While clinical trial data from patients with cancer supports the benefits of chemotherapy, the potential adverse effects of chemotherapeutics in a yet unidentified subset of patients are important to consider. In a study by Haj-Shomaly and colleagues, the interaction between the immune system and extracellular matrix remodeling is investigated for its role in the process. The study sheds light on the role of lysyl oxidase secreted by CD8+ T cells in priming the lung microenvironment for metastatic cell seeding, which may represent a targetable axis to further enhance the efficacy of chemotherapy agents.

See related article by Haj-Shomaly et al., p. 278

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