Highlights from the Literature
Collaboration to Promote Research and Improve Clinical Care in the Evolving Field of Childhood Cancer Predisposition
Cost-Effectiveness of Waiving Coinsurance for Follow-Up Colonoscopy after a Positive Stool-Based Colorectal Screening Test in a Medicare Population
Follow-up colonoscopy after a positive stool-based test is necessary to complete the colorectal cancer-screening process. This analysis demonstrated that in a simulated Medicare population, waiving coinsurance for a follow-up colonoscopy improved estimated outcomes and was cost-effective when it was assumed that waiving the coinsurance modestly increased screening adherence.
Leukotriene Receptor Antagonist Therapy for the Chemoprevention of Human Rectal Aberrant Crypt Foci: Nonrandomized, Open-Label, Controlled Trial
We conducted the first LTRA chemoprevention trial for human rectal ACFs, which is considered a surrogate marker of colorectal carcinogenesis. 8-week treatment with LTRA suppressed ACF formation and cell proliferation in colonic epithelium. LTRAs are possible candidates for chemoprevention in colorectal cancer.
Association of Plasma Iron Status with Subsequent Risk of Total and Site-Specific Cancer: A Large Case–Cohort Study within JPHC Study
High ferritin and low hepcidin levels in the plasma were associated with increased liver cancer risk. Evaluating iron metabolism including hepcidin levels may help identify people with high liver cancer risk.
A chemopreventive role for calcium in colorectal cancer is still unclear. Here, we identify mechanisms through which calcium supplementation may reduce risk. Calcium supplementation increased differentiation and altered expression of colorectal cancer-related genes in a large study of patient-derived colon organoids. These findings were influenced by colon location and sex.
Patient and Provider Web-Based Decision Support for Breast Cancer Chemoprevention: A Randomized Controlled Trial
In this randomized controlled trial of decision support for 300 high-risk women and 50 healthcare providers, we did not observe a significant increase in chemoprevention uptake, which remained low at under 5%. However, these decision support tools may increase knowledge and informed choice about breast cancer chemoprevention.
Letters to the Editor