In the US, <20% of cancers are diagnosed by standard-of-care (SoC) screening. Multicancer early detection (MCED) tests offer the opportunity to expand cancer screening. Understanding the characteristics and clinical outcomes of MCED-detected cancers is critical to clarifying MCED tests’ potential impact. DETECT-A is the first prospective interventional trial of an MCED blood test (CancerSEEK). CancerSEEK, coupled with diagnostic PET-CT, identified cancers including those not detected by SoC screening, the majority of which were localized or regional. We report multiyear outcomes in patients with cancers diagnosed following a positive CancerSEEK test. Nine cancer types were diagnosed in 26 participants whose cancers were first detected by CancerSEEK. Information on cancer diagnoses, treatments, and clinical outcomes was extracted from medical records through November 2022. Data collection occurred at a median of 4.4 years (IQR: 4.1–4.6) following study enrollment. Thirteen of 26 (50%) participants were alive and cancer-free [ovarian (4), thyroid (1), uterine (2), breast (1), colorectal (2), and lung (3)]; 7/13 (54%) had cancers without recommended SoC screening modalities. All eight treated stage I or II participants (8/8, 100%) and 12/14 (86%) surgically treated participants were alive and cancer-free. Eligibility for surgical treatment was associated with favorable multiyear outcomes (P = 0.0002). Half of participants with MCED-detected cancers were alive and cancer-free after 4.4 years median follow-up. Most were diagnosed with early-stage cancers and were treated surgically. These results suggest that early cancer detection by CancerSEEK may have facilitated curative-intent treatments and associated positive clinical outcomes in some DETECT-A participants.

Prevention Relevance: This study provides preliminary evidence of the potential of multicancer early detection testing as an effective screening tool for detecting cancers without standard-of-care (SoC) screening modalities and complementing SoC cancer screening.

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