Purpose: Diet and certain dietary supplements are postulated to influence the development and progression of prostate cancer. Angiogenesis and inflammation are central to tumor growth and progression, but the effect of diet on these processes remains uncertain.

Procedure: We examined changes in 50 plasma cytokines and angiogenic factors (CAFs) in 145 men with prostate cancer enrolled in a pre-operative, randomized controlled phase-II trial with four arms: control (usual diet); low-fat (LF) diet; flaxseed-supplemented (FS) diet; and flaxseed-supplemented, low-fat diet. The mean duration of dietary intervention was 30 days. While two CAFS changed significantly in the FS arm (eotaxin and IL-16), 11 CAFs, including proangiogenic factors (vascular endothelial growth factor [VEGF], stromal-cell derived-1α) and myeloid factors (granulocyte-colony-stimulating factor, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, macrophage-colony-stimulating factor) changed significantly in the LF arm compared to controls with virtually all of these factors decreasing.

Results: Significant decreases in body mass index occurred in the LF arms and correlated with VEGF decreases (P <0.001). Most CAFs that changed in the LF arm are known to be regulated by nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB), and a pathway analysis identified NF-κB as the most likely regulatory network associated with these changes. A trend toward reduced NF-κB, VEGF, carbonic anhydrase-IX, and cyclooxygenase-2 immunoreactivity was observed in resected prostate cancer specimens from the LF arm compared to controls.

Conclusions: Low-fat diets may reduce levels of specific inflammatory cytokines and angiogenic factors via the NF-κB mediated pathway.

Citation Information: Cancer Prev Res 2010;3(12 Suppl):PR-09.