Guideline recommended standard of care screening is available for four cancer types; most cancer-related deaths are caused by cancers without standard of care screening. DETECT-A is the first prospective interventional trial evaluating a multi-cancer early detection (MCED) blood test (CancerSEEK) in women without a history of cancer, providing the first opportunity to assess the long-term outcomes of individuals with false-positive (FP) MCED results. This prospective analysis of DETECT-A participants with FP results evaluates the performance of an imaging-based diagnostic workflow and examines cancer risk following a FP result. This analysis included all DETECT-A participants with a positive CancerSEEK test and subsequent flourine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography-IV contrast-enhanced computed tomography (18-F-FDG PET-CT) imaging and clinical workup indicating no evidence of cancer within 1 year of enrollment (n = 98). Medical records, study interactions, and study surveys were used to assess cancer incidence, treatments, and clinical outcomes through August 2023. Ninety-five of 98 participants with a FP result remained cancer-free with a median follow-up of 3.6 years (IQR: 2.5–4.1) from determination of FP status. Three incident cancers were observed over the follow-up period. One bilateral stage IIIC ovarian cancer was diagnosed 1.9 years after determination of FP status; two stage I breast cancers were diagnosed 0.1 and 1.6 years from determination of FP status. The annual incidence rate of cancer during follow-up from FP determination was 1.0% (95% confidence interval, 0.2%–2.8%). Participants with a positive CancerSEEK test who underwent 18-F-FDG PET-CT and clinical workup without cancer findings had low risk for cancer over the following several years.

Prevention Relevance: This study provides multiyear clinical outcomes data following a false-positive multi-cancer early detection test for individuals participating in a prospective interventional trial. It provides a preliminary performance assessment of an imaging-based diagnostic workflow following a false-positive multi-cancer early detection test.

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