Introduction: Mammographic breast density is among the strongest risk factors for breast cancer. However, breast density is typically assessed subjectively by the radiologist according to the Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) based on 2 dimensional (2D) digital mammography (DM) images. Digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) is quickly replacing DM and allows more detailed volumetric imaging of the breast. Advances in radiomics, the high-throughput extraction of radiologic features, has enabled characterization of breast parenchymal complexity beyond breast density alone. The purpose of this study was to compare the performance of volumetric parenchymal pattern analysis from DBT and DM with conventional breast density measurement with respect to breast cancer risk estimation. Methods: We performed a case control study among women with concurrent DM and DBT screening (Selenia Dimensions, Hologic Inc.) at our institution between 3/2011-12/2014. Cases were diagnosed with breast cancer within 1 year of screening; controls were confirmed negative or benign at 1 year follow-up, matched on race (Black, White, other/unknown) and age (5-year bins). After exclusions for imaging artifacts, craniocaudal (CC) and mediolateral oblique (MLO) views for 187 cases and 737 controls, in six image formats were assessed: 1) raw (“FOR PROCESSING”) DM; 2) processed (“FOR PRESENTATION”) DM; 3) raw DBT central projection; 4) processed DBT central projection; 5) DBT central reconstructed slice; and 6) DBT reconstructed stack. For cases, we analyzed the breast contralateral to cancer diagnosis; for controls the same breast as the matched case. We extracted radiomic features using a lattice-based approach with the publicly available CaPTk software, averaging features for each breast over CC and MLO views. We examined 3 lattice window sizes (6.4, 12.8, and 25.6 mm) and 23 resolutions for image resampling (0.075 - 2mm). We performed PCA on the resulting 487 features for each combination of window size and resolution and built conditional logistic regression models to assess the association of the first 7 principal components with breast cancer, with models including age, BMI, and BI-RADS density. For each image type we calculated the model C-statistic at all window sizes and resolutions, for a total of 2304 experimental conditions. Results: Features from reconstructed DBT scans had on average higher C-statistics across all experimental conditions. A model using only age, BMI, and BI-RADS density had a C-statistic of 0.61. Models using radiomic features plus age, BMI, and BI-RADS density had mean C-statistic of 0.68 (IQR 0.68, 0.69) for reconstructed DBT scans; for all other image types, the mean C-statistic ranged from 0.64 to 0.66. Conclusions: Incorporating volumetric breast parenchymal patterns from DBT improves breast cancer risk estimation beyond markers derived from DM and beyond conventional BI-RADS density.

Citation Format: Eric A. Cohen, Omid Haji Maghsoudi, Raymond Acciavatti, Lauren Pantalone, Walter Mankowski, Alex A Nguyen, Christopher G. Scott, Stacey Winham, Andrew D. Maidment, Anne Marie McCarthy, Celine M Vachon, Emily F Conant, Despina Kontos. Volumetric parenchymal pattern analysis for breast cancer risk estimation. [abstract]. In: Proceedings of the AACR Special Conference: Precision Prevention, Early Detection, and Interception of Cancer; 2022 Nov 17-19; Austin, TX. Philadelphia (PA): AACR; Can Prev Res 2023;16(1 Suppl): Abstract nr P070.