Lung cancer is the second most prevalent cancer worldwide and a leading cause of cancer-related deaths. Recent technological advancements have revealed that the lung microbiome, previously thought to be sterile, is host to various microorganisms. The association between the lung microbiome and lung cancer initiation, progression, and metastasis is complex and contradictory. However, disruption in the homeostasis of microbiome compositions correlated with the increased risk of lung cancer. This review summarizes current knowledge about the most recent developments and trends in lung cancer–related microbiota or microbial components. This article aims to provide information on this rapidly evolving field while giving context to the general role of the lung microbiome in lung cancer. In addition, this review briefly discussed the causative association of lung microbiome with lung cancer. We will review the mechanisms by which lung microbiota influence carcinogenesis, focusing on microbiota dysbiosis. Moreover, we will also discuss the host–microbiome interaction as it plays a crucial role in stimulating and regulating the immune response. Finally, we will provide information on the diagnostic role of the microbiome in lung cancer. This article aims to offer an overview of the lung microbiome as a predictive and diagnostic biomarker in lung cancer.

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