Fusobacterium nucleatum is involved in the development and progression of colorectal cancer. Although the gut microbiota is influenced by diet, studies on the association between diet and F. nucleatum are limited. We aimed to evaluate the association between various dietary factors and fecal F. nucleatum in healthy adults without a history of colorectal cancer or precancerous lesions. This was a cross-sectional study. Subjects who underwent total colonoscopy at the National Cancer Center Hospital (Tokyo, Japan) were included. Healthy subjects (n = 212) were divided into two groups according to the presence or absence of F. nucleatum in their feces which was calculated from data of whole-genome shotgun sequencing, with the group with F. nucleatum serving as cases and the group without F. nucleatum serving as controls. Multivariable logistic regression analysis adjusted potential confounders was conducted to estimate the associations between dietary intake and nutrients estimated by a validated food frequency questionnaire and the presence of F. nucleatum in the feces. There was a significant inverse association between dairy products and the presence of fecal F. nucleatum [high vs. low; OR, 0.41; 95% confidence interval, 0.17–0.95; Ptrend, 0.039]. These results may have important implications for colorectal cancer prevention through nutritional intervention.
F. nucleatum is well known as a colorectal cancer–associated bacterium. Dietary habits alter the composition and function of the intestinal microbiota. A high intake of dairy products in healthy adults may reduce F. nucleatum and prevent colorectal cancer.