Prostate cancer remains one of the most prevalent cancers in aging men. Active surveillance subpopulation of patients with prostate cancer includes men with varying cancer risk categories of precancerous disease due to prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN) heterogeneity. Identifying molecular alterations associated with PIN can provide preventable measures through finding novel pharmacologic targets for cancer interception. Targeted nutritional interception may prove to be the most appropriate chemoprevention for intermediate- and high-risk active surveillance patients. Here, we have generated two prostate-specific transgenic mouse models, one overexpressing MTA1 (R26MTA1) and the other overexpressing MTA1 on the background of Pten heterozygosity (R26MTA1; Pten+/f), in which we examined the potential chemopreventive efficacy of dietary pterostilbene. We show that MTA1 promotes neoplastic transformation of prostate epithelial cells by activating cell proliferation and survival, leading to PIN development. Moreover, MTA1 cooperates with PTEN deficiency to accelerate PIN development by increasing cell proliferation and MTA1-associated signaling. Further, we show that mice fed with a pterostilbene-supplemented diet exhibited more favorable histopathology with decreased severity and number of PIN foci accompanied by reduced proliferation, angiogenesis, and inflammation concomitant to reduction in MTA1 and MTA1-associated CyclinD1, Notch2, and oncogenic miR-34a and miR-22 levels.
Developing novel interceptive strategies for prostate cancer chemoprevention is a paramount goal in clinical oncology. We offer preclinical evidence for the potential of pterostilbene as a promising natural agent for MTA1-targeted interceptive strategy in future cancer prevention trials towards protecting select patients with prostate cancer under active surveillance from developing cancer.