Female carriers of pathogenic/likely pathogenic (P/LP) BRCA1/2 variants are at increased risk of developing breast and ovarian cancer. Currently, the only effective strategy for ovarian cancer risk reduction is risk-reducing bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy (RR-BSO), which carries adverse effects related to early menopause. There is ongoing investigation of inhibition of the RANK ligand (RANKL) with denosumab as a means of chemoprevention for breast cancer in carriers of BRCA1 P/LP variants. Through the NCI Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) Early Phase Clinical Trials Prevention Consortia, a presurgical pilot study of denosumab was developed in premenopausal carriers of P/LP BRCA1/2 variants scheduled for RR-BSO with the goal of collecting valuable data on the biologic effects of denosumab on gynecologic tissue. The study was terminated early due to the inability to accrue participants. Challenges which impacted the conduct of this study included a study design with highly selective eligibility criteria and requirements and the COVID-19 pandemic. It is critical to reflect on these issues to enhance the successful completion of future prevention studies in individuals with hereditary cancer syndromes.

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