The accumulation of regulatory T-cells (Tregs) in the tumor hampers effector antitumor activity and correlates with a poor prognosis in several human cancers. Increasing the effector T-cell (Teff) to regulatory T-cell (Treg) ratio is known to result in improved control of established tumors. Studies demonstrating high levels of CD25 expression on Tregs and only low levels on Teff in human tumors have underscored its relevance as a target for Treg depletion. This supported the development of anti-CD25 depleting monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) as a promising monotherapy as well as combination partner in cancer immunotherapies. To date, anti-CD25 antibodies for clinical use have been designed to block IL-2 binding and signaling through the IL-2 receptor complex and also depletes CD25 positive cells. Since IL-2 is a critical cytokine involved in T-cell activation and proliferation, we hypothesized that a depleting antibody targeting CD25 but unable to block IL-2 signaling would promote a more potent anti-tumor response by preferentially depleting Tregs while still allowing IL-2 to stimulate effector T-cells expressing low levels of CD25 on their surface. We therefore compared the functional activity of anti-mouse CD25 depleting mAbs with and without IL-2 blocking activity. After having confirmed their differential impact on IL-2 signaling in vitro and in vivo, we evaluated the therapeutic activity of these mAbs in various syngeneic tumor models. While both the IL-2 blocking and non-IL-2 blocking mAbs showed equivalent Treg-depleting activity, the antibody sparing IL-2 signaling (αCD25NIB) promoted stronger antitumor effect than the IL-2 blocking mAb, with complete tumor regression observed in 70-100% of the mice after a single administration of the antibody. We demonstrated that the αCD25NIB would be an ideal partner for combination against several tumor types including “immune cold” tumors and αPD-L1 resistant tumors. Our data demonstrate that targeting CD25 with ADCC enabled antibodies preserving IL-2 signaling is a novel and powerful strategy for rejection of established tumors via depletion of Treg cells and enhanced, cell intrinsic, IL-2-driven effector T-cell activation.
Citation Format: Anne Goubier, Isabelle Solomon, Frederick Arce Vargas, Dimitrios Zervas, Chen Qing, Josephine Salimu, Mark Brown, Pascal Merchiers, Karl S. Peggs, Sergio A. Quezada. Non-IL-2 blocking anti-CD25-targeting antibodies: depletion of regulatory T-cells driving optimal effector response for rejection of established tumors [abstract]. In: Proceedings of the Fourth CRI-CIMT-EATI-AACR International Cancer Immunotherapy Conference: Translating Science into Survival; Sept 30-Oct 3, 2018; New York, NY. Philadelphia (PA): AACR; Cancer Immunol Res 2019;7(2 Suppl):Abstract nr A192.