Background: While immune checkpoint blockade is a promising therapeutic approach, combination with agents that modulate complementary pathways may improve responses. Interleukin-2 (IL-2) immunotherapy leads to long-term responses in a small percentage of cancer patients, but systemic toxicity limits its use. In addition, IL-2 expands T regulatory cells, antagonizing antitumor immunity and resulting in a poorer clinical outcome. NKTR-214 is a novel CD122-biased immunostimulatory cytokine which combines biased activation of the IL-2R beta receptor subunit, greatly favoring activation of effector over regulatory T cells, with improved pharmacokinetics and tolerability compared to Proleukin in non-human models. Here we examine the efficacy and mechanism of NKTR-214 combined with anti-CTLA-4 in murine tumor models.
Methods: Mice bearing subcutaneous EMT6 mammary tumors were treated with NKTR-214 q9d, murine anti-CTLA-4 or anti-PD-1 twice-weekly, or both in combination. Immune cell profiling was assessed by flow cytometry following treatment. CD8 or NK cells were depleted in vivo by serial anti-CD8 or anti-asialo-GM1 antibody injections, respectively. Antitumor memory and specificity was assessed in complete responders by challenging with EMT6 or CT26 colon carcinoma implants with no additional treatment.
Results: While NKTR-214 and anti-CTLA-4 were not as efficacious individually, their combination was synergistic and well-tolerated with 83% of test animals tumor-free. Combination treatment increased NK and memory effector CD8 cells in both tumor and spleen. Antitumor immunity by the combination was durable and specific as 70% and 100% of mice remained tumor-free after challenge with a second and third EMT6 implant, but not after a subsequent CT26 implant. NKTR-214 combined with anti-PD-1 also proved synergistic with 40% of animals remaining tumor free following treatment. In vivo depletion of either CD8 effector or NK cells abrogated efficacy suggesting both contribute to the response.
Conclusions: The mechanism of NKTR-214 antitumor immunity is complementary to checkpoint inhibition. Favorable pharmacokinetics of NKTR-214 allows sustained tumor exposure and dosing schedules commensurate with other therapies. This new therapeutic combination of NKTR-214 and checkpoint inhibition may similarly enable durable responses in humans.
Citation Format: John L. Langowski, Seema S. Kantak, Rhoneil Pena, Yolanda Kirksey, Murali Addepalli, Steve Lee, Ute Hoch, Deborah H. Charych, Stephen K. Doberstein. Antitumor activity of the CD122-biased immunostimulatory cytokine combined with immune checkpoint blockade requires innate and adaptive immunity. [abstract]. In: Proceedings of the CRI-CIMT-EATI-AACR Inaugural International Cancer Immunotherapy Conference: Translating Science into Survival; September 16-19, 2015; New York, NY. Philadelphia (PA): AACR; Cancer Immunol Res 2016;4(1 Suppl):Abstract nr B015.