Immunogenic cell death (ICD) is a type of cell death induced by various chemotherapeutics, physical modalities such as photodynamic therapy, radiotherapy and high hydrostatic pressure (HHP). HHP induces immunogenic cell death of cancer cell is currently tested in running II. and III. phase of clinical trial for preparation of active cellular cancer immunotherapy (DCVAC). Previous studies have shown that the immunogenicity of ICD mainly relies on surface exposed calreticulin (ecto-CRT); CRT is normally located in the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and may translocate to the cell surface within hours after treatment. Although ICD can be triggers by HHP, underlying danger signaling pathways remain unclear. Therefore ovarian (OV90) cancer cell line was treated by HHP, UV-B and anthracycline (Idarubicin). The kinetics of ICD markers and key components of ER stress-mediated apoptotic pathway were analyzed by flow cytometry, western blotting and confocal microscopy.
In this work we described the ability of HHP triggers oxidative ER-stress (the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) together with ER stress response) which results in phosphorylation of PERK and eIF2α. We also observed a rapid caspase-8 activation subsequently followed by BAP31 cleavage, Bid activation and caspase-3 activation. While caspase-8 activation was necessary for cell surface exposure of calreticulin (ecto-CRT) after HHP treatment, proapoptotic proteins Bax and Bak were dispensable for this process. Moreover, we identified that HHP treatment leads to caspase-2 activation. Whereas Idarubicin treatment has no effect on ecto-CRT exposure in Caspase-2 knockdown tumor cells, ecto-CRT was significantly decreased in these cells after HHP treatment. In addition, phagocytosis of HHP-treated Caspase-2 knockdown tumor cells was compromised in contrast to Idarubicin-treated knockout tumor cells.
In conclusion, we characterized the molecular mechanism of ecto-CRT exposure pathway induced by HHP which is analogous to that induced by anthracycline treatment. For the first time we provide evidence that caspase-2 might play an important role in the HHP-mediated ecto-CRT exposure.
Citation Format: Irena Kusova Moserova, Iva Truxova, Abhishek G, Garg, Patrizia Agostinis, Piere Francois Cartron, Sarka Vosahlikova, Radek Spisek, Jitka Fucikova. Caspase-2 and oxidative-ER stress crosstalk regulates the exposure of “eat me” signal calreticulin by high hydrostatic pressure treated cancer cells. [abstract]. In: Proceedings of the CRI-CIMT-EATI-AACR Inaugural International Cancer Immunotherapy Conference: Translating Science into Survival; September 16-19, 2015; New York, NY. Philadelphia (PA): AACR; Cancer Immunol Res 2016;4(1 Suppl):Abstract nr A039.