The nature of an immune response is rarely defined by a unanimous decisions by the participating cells; cells with seemingly opposing functions pervade many immune sites and tumors are no exception. Multiple DC and Macrophage subsets exert push/pull on T cell responses in tumors. Fundamentals of this are gleaned by live-imaging in connection with conventional methods such as flow-cytometry and immunofluorescence. Here, we broadly treat real-time imaging as a discovery tool to understand the tumor microenvironment (TME) and the diversity of cellular interactions that comprise host-tumor interactions. We have advanced this technology from sites of primary, spontaneous and aggressive tumors into sites of metastasis. The results promote the concept of seeking “allies” for tumor therapies within the TME and provide a basis for considering the balance of push/pull signals that determine the consensus immune response.

Citation Format: Edward W. Roberts, Mark B. Headley, Miranda Broz, Bijan Boldjipour, Kaitlin Corbin, Mikhail Binnewies, Adriaan Bins, Audrey Audrey Gerard, Matthew Krummel. Visualizing tumor immune interaction in real time [abstract]. In: Proceedings of the Second CRI-CIMT-EATI-AACR International Cancer Immunotherapy Conference: Translating Science into Survival; 2016 Sept 25-28; New York, NY. Philadelphia (PA): AACR; Cancer Immunol Res 2016;4(11 Suppl):Abstract nr IA32.