In cancer, multiple factors converge upon receptor activator of nuclear factor κB (RANK) and its ligand (RANKL) signaling to promote the development of bone metastases; agents that inhibit RANKL signaling reduce skeletal-related events (SRE) in patients with cancer. In addition, RANKL signaling is important in augmenting the ability of dendritic cells (DC) to stimulate both naïve T-cell proliferation and the survival of RANK+ T cells. In this issue, Chang and colleagues using high-dimensional cytometry to evaluate immunomodulatory effects of denosumab in patients with advanced solid, observe early on treatment changes in multiple compartments, and greater effects in patients receiving concurrent chemotherapy or steroids.

See related article by Chang et al., p. 453 (4).

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