Bladder tumors have a high mutational burden and tend to be responsive to immune therapies; however, response rates remain modest. To date, immunotherapy in bladder cancer has largely focused on enhancing T-cell immune responses in the bladder tumor microenvironment. It is anticipated that other immune cells, including innate lymphoid cells (ILC), which play an important role in bladder oncogenesis and tumor suppression, could be targeted to improve response to existing therapies. ILCs are classified into five groups: natural killer cells, ILC1s, ILC2s, ILC3s, and lymphoid tissue inducer cells. ILCs are pleiotropic and play dual and sometimes paradoxical roles in cancer development and progression. Here, a comprehensive discussion of the current knowledge and recent advancements in understanding the role of ILCs in bladder cancer is provided. We discuss the multifaceted roles that ILCs play in bladder immune surveillance, tumor protection, and immunopathology of bladder cancer. This review provides a rationale for targeting ILCs in bladder cancer, which is relevant for other solid tumors.

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