T cell–retargeting therapies have transformed the therapeutic landscape for hematologic diseases. T cell–dependent bispecific antibodies (TDB) function as conditional agonists that induce a polyclonal T-cell response, resulting in target cell destruction and cytokine release. The relationship between this response and its effects on surrounding innate immune populations has not been fully explored. Here we show that treatment with mosunetuzumab in patients results in natural killer (NK) cell activation in the peripheral blood. We modeled this phenomenon in vitro and found that TDB-mediated killing activated NK cells, increasing NK function and antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC), and enhanced the capability of macrophages to perform antibody-dependent cellular phagocytosis (ADCP). This enhancement was triggered by cytokines released through TDB treatment, with IL2 and IFNγ being major drivers for increased ADCC and ADCP, respectively. Surprisingly, cytolytic ability could be further augmented through neutralization of IL10 for NK cells and TNFα for macrophages. Finally, we showed that TDB treatment enhanced the efficacy of Fc-driven killing to an orthogonal solid tumor target in vivo. These results provide rationale for novel antibody therapy combinations that take advantage of both adaptive and innate immune responses.

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