The remarkable success of cancer immunotherapy has revolutionized cancer treatment, emphasizing the importance of tumor–immune interactions in cancer evolution and treatment. Cancer immunoediting describes the dual effect of tumor–immune interactions: inhibiting tumor growth by destroying tumor cells and facilitating tumor escape by shaping tumor immunogenicity. To better understand tumor–immune interactions, it is critical to develop computational methods to measure the extent of cancer immunoediting. In this review, we provide a comprehensive overview of the computational methods for quantifying cancer immunoediting. We focus on describing the basic ideas, computational processes, advantages, limitations, and influential factors. We also summarize recent advances in quantifying cancer immunoediting studies and highlight future research directions. As the methods for quantifying cancer immunoediting are continuously improved, future research will further help define the role of immunity in tumorigenesis and hopefully provide a basis for the design of new personalized cancer immunotherapy strategies.