Stromal fibroblasts reside in inflammatory tissues that are characterized by either immune suppression or activation. Whether and how fibroblasts adapt to these contrasting microenvironments remains unknown. Cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAF) mediate immune quiescence by producing the chemokine CXCL12, which coats cancer cells to suppress T-cell infiltration. We examined whether CAFs can also adopt an immune-promoting chemokine profile. Single-cell RNA sequencing of CAFs from mouse pancreatic adenocarcinomas identified a subpopulation of CAFs with decreased expression of Cxcl12 and increased expression of the T cell–attracting chemokine Cxcl9 in association with T-cell infiltration. TNFα and IFNγ containing conditioned media from activated CD8+ T cells converted stromal fibroblasts from a CXCL12+/CXCL9 immune-suppressive phenotype into a CXCL12/CXCL9+ immune-activating phenotype. Recombinant IFNγ and TNFα acted together to augment CXCL9 expression, whereas TNFα alone suppressed CXCL12 expression. This coordinated chemokine switch led to increased T-cell infiltration in an in vitro chemotaxis assay. Our study demonstrates that CAFs have a phenotypic plasticity that allows their adaptation to contrasting immune tissue microenvironments.

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