Tumors that metastasize in the peritoneal cavity typically end up in the omental adipose tissue, a particularly immune-suppressive environment that includes specialized adipose-resident regulatory T cells (Treg). Tregs rapidly accumulate in the omentum after tumor implantation and potently suppress antitumor immunity. However, it is unclear whether these Tregs are recruited from the circulation or derived from preexisting adipose-resident Tregs by clonal expansion. Here we show that Tregs in tumor-bearing omenta predominantly have thymus-derived characteristics. Moreover, naïve tumor antigen-specific CD4+ T cells fail to differentiate into Tregs in tumor-bearing omenta. In fact, Tregs derived from the pretumor repertoire are sufficient to suppress antitumor immunity and promote tumor growth. However, tumor implantation in the omentum does not promote Treg clonal expansion, but instead leads to increased clonal diversity. Parabiosis experiments show that despite tissue-resident (noncirculating) characteristics of omental Tregs in naïve mice, tumor implantation promotes a rapid influx of circulating Tregs, many of which come from the spleen. Finally, we show that newly recruited Tregs rapidly acquire characteristics of adipose-resident Tregs in tumor-bearing omenta. These data demonstrate that most Tregs in omental tumors are recruited from the circulation and adapt to their environment by altering their homing, transcriptional, and metabolic properties.

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