Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC) are a heterogeneous population of pathologically activated, mostly immature, myeloid cells that exert robust immunosuppressive functions. MDSCs expand during oncogenesis and have been linked to accelerated disease progression and resistance to treatment in both preclinical tumor models and patients with cancer. Thus, MDSCs stand out as promising targets for the development of novel immunotherapeutic regimens with superior efficacy. Here, we summarize accumulating preclinical and clinical evidence indicating that MDSCs also hamper the efficacy of radiotherapy (RT), as we critically discuss the potential of MDSC-targeting strategies as tools to achieve superior immunotherapeutic tumor control by RT in the clinic.

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