Nutrients are essential for supporting tumor growth and immune cell function in the tumor microenvironment, but emerging evidence reveals a paradoxical competition and collaboration between the metabolic demands of proliferating cancer cells and immune cell activation. Dietary interventions and metabolic immunoengineering offer promise to selectively modulate cancer and immune cell metabolism by targeting metabolic sensing processes rather than pathways directly, moving beyond conventional ideas and heralding an exciting new era of immunometabolism discovery and translation.

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