Biological characteristics of tumors are heterogeneous, forming spectra in terms of several factors such as age at onset, anatomic spatial localization, tumor subtyping, and the degree of tumor aggressiveness (encompassing a neoplastic property spectrum). Instead of blindly using dichotomized approaches, the application of the multicategorical and continuous analysis approaches to detailed cancer spectrum data can contribute to a better understanding of the etiology of cancer, ultimately leading to effective prevention and precision oncology. We provide examples of cancer spectra and emphasize the importance of integrating the cancer spectrum theory into large-scale population cancer research.

You do not currently have access to this content.