Turning to a large whole-genome-sequenced tumor cohort, researchers analyzed the genomic differences between primary and metastatic cancers. They found that genomic differences between them were modest except in advanced breast, prostate, thyroid, and kidney renal clear-cell carcinomas and pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors. The researchers showed that one in four patients carries the risk of a genetic immune escape event, primarily from loss of heterozygosity of HLA-I.

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