Tumor heterogeneity is a major barrier to cancer therapy, including immunotherapy. Activated T cells can efficiently kill tumor cells following recognition of MHC class I (MHC-I)–bound peptides, but this selection pressure favors outgrowth of MHC-I–deficient tumor cells. We performed a genome-scale screen to discover alternative pathways for T cell–mediated killing of MHC-I–deficient tumor cells. Autophagy and TNF signaling emerged as top pathways, and inactivation of Rnf31 (TNF signaling) and Atg5 (autophagy) sensitized MHC-I–deficient tumor cells to apoptosis by T cell–derived cytokines. Mechanistic studies demonstrated that inhibition of autophagy amplified proapoptotic effects of cytokines in tumor cells. Antigens from apoptotic MHC-I–deficient tumor cells were efficiently cross-presented by dendritic cells, resulting in heightened tumor infiltration by IFNγ-and TNFα-producing T cells. Tumors with a substantial population of MHC-I–deficient cancer cells could be controlled by T cells when both pathways were targeted using genetic or pharmacologic approaches.


Tumor heterogeneity is a major barrier to immunotherapy. We show that MHC-I–deficient tumor cells are forced into apoptosis by T cell–derived cytokines when TNF signaling and autophagy pathways are targeted. This approach enables T cell–mediated elimination of tumors with a substantial population of resistant, MHC-I–deficient tumor cells.

This article is highlighted in the In This Issue feature, p. 1027

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