Proofreading defects produced from mutations in the DNA polymerase epsilon (POLE) gene contribute to a hypermutated genome that can potentially sensitize tumors to immune checkpoint blockade. Despite this, many POLE-mutant tumors do not demonstrate a robust response to this type of therapy. Rousseau and colleagues conducted a multicenter clinical trial in patients with POLE-mutated solid tumors and showed that only mutations in the DNA binding or catalytic site of the exonuclease domain of POLE contributed to high tumor burden and subsequent increases to T-cell infiltration and response rates to anti–PD-1 therapy, suggesting their use as a biomarker of anti–PD-1 response.

See article, p. 1435.

Escape from the “graft-versus-tumor” effect represents the main driver of leukemia relapses after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation. In up to 40% of cases, the expression of HLA class II molecules is lost from the surface of leukemic cells, without evidence of...

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