Cancer genotyping has identified a large number of putative tumor suppressor genes. Carcinogenesis is a multistep process, but the importance and specific roles of many of these genes during tumor initiation, growth, and progression remain unknown. Here we use a multiplexed mouse model of oncogenic KRAS–driven lung cancer to quantify the impact of 48 known and putative tumor suppressor genes on diverse aspects of carcinogenesis at an unprecedented scale and resolution. We uncover many previously understudied functional tumor suppressors that constrain cancer in vivo. Inactivation of some genes substantially increased growth, whereas the inactivation of others increases tumor initiation and/or the emergence of exceptionally large tumors. These functional in vivo analyses revealed an unexpectedly complex landscape of tumor suppression that has implications for understanding cancer evolution, interpreting clinical cancer genome sequencing data, and directing approaches to limit tumor initiation and progression.


Our high-throughput and high-resolution analysis of tumor suppression uncovered novel genetic determinants of oncogenic KRAS–driven lung cancer initiation, overall growth, and exceptional growth. This taxonomy is consistent with changing constraints during the life history of cancer and highlights the value of quantitative in vivo genetic analyses in autochthonous cancer models.

This article is highlighted in the In This Issue feature, p. 1601

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