Chronic Neutrophilic Leukemia (CNL) is a rare BCR-ABL negative myeloproliferative neoplasm that affects approximately 1 in a million individuals. The typical age of onset and disease presentation is in elderly patients with a median age of 63 and a range of 9-84. The oncogenic driver of CSF3R, the G-CSF receptor protein, in CNL has been classified over the last decade and has improved therapies for patients with targeted Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors, such as Ruxolitinib (a potent JAK1/2 inhibitor). Currently, the only curative option is an allogeneic hemopoietic stem cell transplant with typical median overall survival of 2 years. Because of the low occurrence rate of CNL, there have only been 3 germline cases of CSF3R classified in literature. With these patients, they exhibit a lifelong skewing of the myeloid lineage causing gross neutrophilia. Our patient presented at 13 months with leukocytosis and neutrophilia, resulting in genetic testing revealing the diagnosis of the youngest documented case of CNL. A germline CSF3R T618I constitutive activating mutation was documented in our patient and in her father. Her father had documented lifelong leukocytosis of indeterminate origin and it was not until 33 that genetic testing was done, and he was diagnosed with CNL. He underwent an allogeneic stem cell transplant after being admitted with gross hepatosplenomegaly with a WBC of 322, the highest recorded in a germline CNL patient in literature. Our patient presented to clinic with leukocytosis ranging from 45-98 and hepatosplenomegaly. After a bone marrow aspirate and biopsy was taken to determine disease stage and severity, we immediately began Ruxolitinib therapy. We began 20 mg BID dosing based on platelets and monitored response to therapy while conducting targeted RNA-seq for myelodysplastic and myeloid leukemia genes on the bone marrow, which did not detect any secondary mutations. Ruxolitinib dosing was tapered down in a stepwise fashion, until the patient arrived at the current dose of 7.5 mg BID Ruxolitinib, resulting in stable leukocyte counts around 25. As part of monitoring, we are currently conducting 6-month BM procedures and NGS for AML/MDS genes and Ruxolitinib resistance mutations alongside monthly CBCs. Our patient has been on Ruxolitinib for 9 months and has not developed any secondary contributing mutations and remains sensitive to therapy. We continue to monitor our patient’s response to Ruxolitinib to determine if germline predisposition alters the transformative nature of the disease. Within T618I germline CNL cases, we are investigating the difference in phenotype and disease burden that we observe in our patient’s family compared to literature. Based on current cases, it seems that germline CNL does not transform during childhood and adolescence into AML without the influence of a secondary mutation. Retrospective studies into previous cases of CNL to determine if there is a higher frequency of germline origin could pave the way for potential early-stage therapies and detection of CNL prior to transformation.

Citation Format: Kevin Zhang, Matthew Rees, Mahsa Khanlari, Laura Rooms, Raul Ribeiro, Marcin Wlodarski. Pediatric Germline CSF3R T618I mutation gives insight into disease progression and long-term therapy options of Chronic Neutrophilic Leukemia [abstract]. In: Proceedings of the AACR Special Conference: Acute Myeloid Leukemia and Myelodysplastic Syndrome; 2023 Jan 23-25; Austin, TX. Philadelphia (PA): AACR; Blood Cancer Discov 2023;4(3_Suppl):Abstract nr A38.