Despite advancements, acute myeloid leukemia (AML) remains unconquered by current therapies. Evidence of immune evasion during AML progression, such as HLA loss and T-cell exhaustion, suggests that antileukemic immune responses contribute to disease control and could be harnessed by immunotherapy. In this review, we discuss a spectrum of AML immunotherapy targets, encompassing cancer cell-intrinsic and surface antigens as well as targeting in the leukemic milieu, and how they can be tailored for personalized approaches. These targets are overviewed across major immunotherapy modalities applied to AML: immune checkpoint inhibitors, antibody–drug conjugates, therapeutic vaccines, bispecific/trispecific antibodies, and chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-T and CAR-NK cells.

Significance: Immune therapies in AML treatment show evolving promise. Ongoing research aims to customize approaches for varied patient profiles and clinical scenarios. This review covers immune surveillance mechanisms, therapy options like checkpoint inhibitors, antibodies, CAR-T/NK cells, and vaccines, as well as resistance mechanisms and microenvironment considerations.

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